Archive for November, 2012

Genius Loci, Genius Loco

Saturday, November 24th, 2012

I was surprised, though maybe I shouldn’t have been, to receive an email this week from one of my former students who went with me on the trip to El Alamein that I recently wrote about. This student knew about the 70th anniversary of the battle, but he also reports that when he goes running in the desert, he usually thinks of that trip. People often have fond memories of school trips, and not just the lavish trips. Our trip was very modest, and thinking about it put me in mind of a South African I knew who as a boy had taken a school camping trip to the Kruger Park. In those days black South Africans were shunted off to the side in subpar accommodation, but he reported on the trip with as much pleasure as if it had happened a month before. What these stories have in common is the vividness of real physical activity with real physical people.

This vividness of actually experienced reality is also what gives an extra charge even to the “ordinary” days at school or university when people are with each other, dealing in all the give-and-take that being in a real group entails. While it is true that some highly introverted or disaffected people would rather not have such an experience, for most people it is, or should be, a welcome slice of life. Much that is valuable in academics also depends on physical proximity and face-to-face conversation. I have taken part in “webinars” and found them immediately forgettable. By contrast, I still remember particular moments around the colloquium tables of my undergraduate education, and I remember visits to professors during “office hours” and the conversations that took place then.

It is against the thought of a school as a place where actual things really happen to people who are physically present that I read about the breathless buzz surrounding MOOCs (I think it stands for Monstrously Oversubscribed Online Courses), the Wave of the Future of the Month. So far the model is that a generously endowed professor at an illustrious and well-funded university offers a free introductory course for no credit. I think it is a wonderful gesture for these teachers to give charitably of their time and thought to something popular but peripheral to the concerns of their alma mater, for such undertakings are peripheral: the students who receive credit still matriculate and pay tuition and go to classes and meet their classmates and teachers. They still form their intellects in discussions at which they are held responsible for what they say in real time by people who are right in front of them. They still receive formative evaluations at conferences where they interact one-on-one with an expert in the field: not always, and not for everything, but for enough that simple knowledge tested in summative evaluations is only a part of the experience.

Only people who are looking for short cuts to “knowledge” and certification—and the reporters and politicians gulled by them—think that MOOCs can be the Wave of the Future of education for any length of time. It is certainly possible that “schools” will form on line, but I have argued that they are schools in only a threadbare sense. It now seems possible also that people can “attend” MOOCs that won’t be troubled by inadequate bandwidth, and that rubrics can be devised which allow certain kinds of crude “crowdmarking;” but that kind of marking can only be summative, and even the fastest online type-chat is not the same as a face-to-face conversation.

These objections probably won’t stop some “schools” from adopting MOOCs in place of physical courses, but I would be willing to bet that the best universities and preparatory schools will remain actual places with actual programs involving physically present people. It’s a pity that what has started as a hobbyist offering by elite universities could end up being the fallback schooling offered by purveyors of education on the cheap—a new Bantu education but without the wild things of the Kruger Park or the deserts of El Alamein to cast back to in memory.

Integrity and Integration: A Kind of Wholeness

Saturday, November 17th, 2012

Though we usually use these words in the sense of “having a moral compass” and “bringing together of disparate elements, particularly different ethnic elements,” they have older senses that I want to note. Their Latin roots are the same: a word for “entire.” In these older senses a school with integrity would be one that hangs together, and whose aim is to nurture or cultivate the entire student. A subject with integrity is one that has a sense of coherence overall and among its parts. When the parts of a subject or of a school combine to make a genuine whole, we may say that they are integrated.

There may be many kinds of opposites to a school or a subject with integrity. I have dealt with Potemkin schools, which are shells behind which nothing complete or entire can be found, or indeed anything with even a tendency to completeness. And I have looked at courses that lack integrity, the most glaring example being the one George Orwell reports having taken as a boy. That course in history, which he called “a sort of preparation for a confidence trick,” lacked integrity in the familiar sense of being a trick, but it also lacked a sense of the wholeness of history conveyed entire. It did not teach history, it taught how to pass the Eton History Prize examination. The problem with teaching to tests is that it puts the cart before the horse, but many people seem happy to indulge or encourage this preposterous practice.

Another problem is the teaching of “skills” without subjects to give them form, purpose, and meaning. If someone taught me how to swing a golf club without teaching me to play golf, it would be a meaningless accomplishment. No one would urge me to take a course in golf-club swinging, or ball-hitting, or addressing a golf ball. Rather, a teacher of a subject with integrity would teach me to play golf, in the course of which I would learn how to do these things. I would then learn not just a number of “skills” but the integrative skill of combining them in a complex accomplishment.

In spite of the seeming wrongheadedness of teaching to tests and of teaching “skills,” The New York Times reports that “a new kind of tutoring aims to make kids smarter.” It turns out that it consists mainly of disintegrated exercises such as doing sums next to a hand-clapping noodge or tossing beanbags rhythmically while spelling a sentence one letter at a time. The idea is that this heap of “skills” will help people take intelligence tests. Intelligence tests! Just what Johnny needs: coaching in a dubious non-integrated “skills” that mysteriously combine in a “power” of doubtful value. Some customers, I mean learners, say the exercises help them pay attention. If the object is to teach kids to resist distraction, why not pay someone to offer them tutoring in a genuine subject, placing their mobile phone face down on the table and telling them to ignore it? Or, perish the thought, telling them to turn it off?

I am not sure what is at work in the disintegration of teaching and learning, but I think that it may be due in part to some version of the reductive fallacy, whereby an attainment with some integrity is analyzed into “factors” that it is “nothing but.” It works like a dissection of the goose that laid the golden egg. And I fear it may be the result of “science” with a mission to “discover” how to “deliver” “instruction” on the cheap: Pink Slime Education. Either way, it will end up offering something thin and unsatisfactory compared with the real, integral thing.

You Can Run, but You Can’t Hide, from PISA

Sunday, November 11th, 2012

Well worth examining and thinking about is a recent New York Times interview with Andreas Schleicher, a special advisor on education to the secretary general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the group under whose aegis the PISA tests of national (or, in the case of some Asian cities, municipal) accomplishment are administered. Items:

•     Education does not automatically founder in an urban environment: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Singapore are big cities with big groups of poor families, and their schools are, by and large, successful.

•     “Quality and equity [don’t] seem to be opposing policy objectives”: In Finland’s schools, the best of any non-municipal “nation” in PISA’s ambit, there is only a 5% performance variation. It is often said that Finland is homogeneous, but it is not that homogeneous.

•     An industrial model of education administration is less successful than a professional model, and the best education systems work along professional, not industrial, lines. It is not a question of unionism vs. non-unionism either: some countries with strong unions do very well, the unions being fundamentally professional rather than industrial.

•     In the best school systems accountability is horizontal, not vertical: teachers work together to plan and debrief on lessons, and they advise, counsel, and evaluate each other.

•     All other things being equal, smaller classes are better, but it is even better to have good teachers than to have small classes. (The sticking-point, not discussed by Schleicher in this interview, is in how to determine quality. But in another New York Times article, a Finnish administrator said that Finnish teachers would not tolerate “value-added metrics.” It is a sign of the advanced state of Finland’s education system that what teachers will tolerate matters, and that they have not been gulled or victimized by this preposterous hoax.)

Field Trip from the Capital of Memory: El Alamein

Friday, November 2nd, 2012

Reading notices of the 70th anniversary of the Battle of El Alamein took me back to my job of teaching in Alexandria—the Alexandria—twenty years ago. 1992 was the 50th anniversary, and “everybody” came to Egypt’s northern coast for the commemoration. My main reading about the battle had been in Olivia Manning’s captivating Levant Trilogy, though Durrell’s Alexandria Quartet alludes to the battle too.

(The Alexandria Quartet! One of the most wonderfully strange series of novels ever produced, it is set in and around the Alexandria of the 1940s: not just a physically and historically actual Alexandria, but also and more importantly an imaginative one. The aptly named character Mnemjian calls it the Capital of Memory, echoing the treatment also used by E.M. Forster in his Alexandria: a History and a Guide, published in the 1920s. The Alexandria Forster calls up was more a memory than an actuality, and indeed everywhere one turns one does as much imagining and remembering as actual seeing. History lies beneath every surface of land and water. My colleague the Dean went scuba diving among submerged ruins that were later determined to be Cleopatra’s palace. The Cleopatra.)

Having gone to the battleground with some friends, I decided to take a load of students there and to camp overnight at the nearby lip of the Qattara Depression. It was early spring, and I guessed that we would have fair weather. We had the supplies we would need for a basic or primitive camping trip, including water, for the site was bone dry. There is nothing relaxing about taking students on a trip, pace the uninformed teacher-bashers who say that it is nothing but babysitting; but I felt confident that we could have an interesting and entertaining overnighter.

The morning of the trip dawned, but it was unexpectedly very hot. This was a potentially serious wrinkle in the plans not just because of the limited water supply but also because a sudden change to hot weather in spring sometimes signals the appearance of a khamseen wind. One of the famous Mediterranean winds, the khamseen is known on the Italian side of the Mediterranean as the scirocco, the South Wind of Norman Douglas’s lovely book about the fictional island of Nepenthe. The scirocco can be so strong as to reach hurricane force, carrying dust from the Libyan Desert as far as Italy and France.

A friend and I had been caught in a dust storm in Saudi Arabia one time, having to drive a kilometer or so in wind so heavily loaded with sand and dust that the driver could not see the edge of the road from his seat, and could barely see over the hood. I had to lead the car, walking through airborne dust so thick that it sheeted off my clothes and scattered in ribbons to the ground. The distance from the coast road to the lip of the escarpment is some tens of kilometers, which I did not want to take at a dusty walk. And what about those hurricane winds? I didn’t want to be sandblasted either.

But we decided to take off, I telling the students that if the sky took on the threatening white glare we associated with an imminent khamseen, we would turn around and come back. At the moment, the sky was blue and cloudless. The first part of the drive, though the city, was familiar to us all: neighborhoods named Caesar’s Camp (“Caesar never camped here,” Forster tartly informs us) and Cleopatra (“Cleopatra never lived here”). Our route westward through the city followed the route of the ancient Canopic Road through a neighborhood known two thousand years ago by the Greek letter Delta, though no Hellenistic ruins were visible. Not far from our road lay Alexander the Great Street, which passed the site of the new Alexandria Library, then under construction but now completed. Everyone has heard of the old Alexandria Library, destroyed in the seventh century. Its site was apparently a little due south of where we crossed the center of town. We passed the building identified as Nessim’s palace in the Alexandria Quartet, though it is now a bank, not a private house. We passed the café where Darley met Justine—dark in ancient red velvet curtains. The students, having read Justine (Durrell’s, not Sade’s), knew what these places were.

We passed through the chaotic resort city of Agami, about which a friend had said, “There is not a single beautiful building in the entire city.” I couldn’t prove her wrong. Once west of Agami we passed fig plantations and then found ourselves in (generally) open desert. On our left at one point was an old tower called Borg al-Arab, which is, or is not, a replica of the ancient Lighthouse, depending on whom you talk to. Also in that area is Abu Mena, the Lourdes of early Christendom, where pilgrims from around the region would come hoping for a cure while taking its waters. The site is now in ruins. A nearby monastery still holds a community of Coptic Christian monks, not quite as isolated as the austere monasteries of Wadi Natrun (Sodium Gulch, named after its salt pans).

As we moved into the open desert, we became aware of a strange atmospheric phenomenon. Over the Mediterranean Sea to our right, the sky was a brilliant blue; but over the brown desert to our left the blue took on a light beige tinge from the desert below, and was less brilliant than the sky to our right. The division between the two skies was pronounced. The coastline, which was often in view, consisted of brilliantly white marl and white sand; the ocean was an incredibly vivid light electric blue, and even the waves’ foam had a pale bluish cast.

Not long afterwards we came to the village of El Alamein, which gave the battle its name; and then we found the battlefield monuments of the German, Italian, and British Armies. It was hard to believe the tens of thousands of casualties in the battle, and hard to believe the extensiveness of the cemeteries there. The students decided that the most beautiful and stylish monument was the Italian, while the German monument was most likely to last through many khamseen winds.

We turned left onto Betrol Road (Arabic does not include the letter P) leading to an oilfield on the other side of the battleground near the Qattara Depression. I told the students that we would stay in the car while traveling through the battleground because not all the land mines from the “Devil’s Gardens” had been removed, and the “Gardens” were still a deadly menace. The reason Field Marshall Montgomery had chosen this ground on which to challenge Rommel was that the Depression, inaccessible to tanks, confined the action to a controllable segment of the coastal plain.

The heat with which the day had begun was even greater now, and the students were imagining themselves under this wide hot sky being shelled and strafed. It was a sobering drive.

The Qattara Depression appears suddenly and seemingly out of nowhere. The horizon “approaches,” but it is actually the lip of an escarpment where the land falls away for hundreds of feet to Africa’s second-lowest point. The drop is sudden and unmarked. We stopped and got out.

The eroded cliffs showed shoals of fossilized sea creatures by the thousands. The students wanted to “explore,” and though I was not keen to scramble down a rocky cliff in hot sunny weather, I obliged them. We took water bottles. The exploration was draining, and I called a halt soon after it began because one of the students was looking as if heat exhaustion might come on. We slowly clambered back up to the lip of the escarpment and looked out towards the south. The sky was a brilliant painful white, and I recalled the Saudi dust storm and Chapter 50 of Gibbon:

“[A] boundless level of sand is intersected by sharp and naked mountains; and the face of the desert, without shade or shelter, is scorched by the direct and intense rays of a tropical sun. Instead of refreshing breezes, the winds, particularly from the south-west, diffuse a noxious and even deadly vapour; the hillocks of sand which they alternately raise and scatter, are compared to the billows of the ocean, and whole caravans, whole armies, have been lost and buried in the whirlwind.”

I noticed while thinking of this passage that a southwest breeze was rising and decided that we had better abort the camping trip. I was confirmed in that decision by the alarming inroads the students were making in our water supply after our hot climb up the escarpment. Though disappointed, the students brightened when I promised that we would stop at a beach on the way back for swimming (“sea-bathing,” Durrell calls it). The surf on the beach had a gentle break softened by the offshore wind that had chased us northward; but nothing diluted its brilliant color.

As it turned out the north coast and Alexandria got only a light dusting instead of the four-day sandblasting one can sometimes experience, but I was not sorry to curtail the trip. We had had the sight of the patriot graves, we had had a chance to see a land’s end that fell into a seeming nothingness, we had had a taste of Gibbon’s fiftieth chapter, and we had washed it all away with some bracing body-surfing. No, we hadn’t washed it all away because the memory remains with me and with them even as we read this week’s accounts of the battle.